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顶管机工作原理及使用注意事项

发布时间:2019-12-04人气:

顶管机在建筑工程中可以经常看到他的身影,很多人对顶管机非常好奇,我们今天就来分析一下顶管机的工作原理和使用注意事项。

顶管机

一.顶管机工作原理

顶管(guan)施工(gong)是继(ji)盾构施工(gong)之后而发展(zhan)起来的一种地(di)下(xia)(xia)管(guan)道(dao)施工(gong)方法,它不需要开挖(wa)面层(ceng),并且能够穿越公路、铁道(dao)、河(he)川、地(di)面建筑物、地(di)下(xia)(xia)构筑物以(yi)及各种地(di)下(xia)(xia)管(guan)线等(deng)。

顶管(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)借助于主顶油缸及管(guan)(guan)道间(jian)中继间(jian)等的(de)推力,把工(gong)具管(guan)(guan)或掘进机(ji)(ji)从工(gong)作(zuo)井(jing)内穿过土层(ceng)一(yi)直(zhi)推到(dao)接收井(jing)内吊(diao)起。与此同(tong)时,也就把紧随工(gong)具管(guan)(guan)或掘进机(ji)(ji)后的(de)管(guan)(guan)道埋设在两井(jing)之间(jian),以期实(shi)现非开挖敷设地下(xia)管(guan)(guan)道的(de)施(shi)工(gong)方(fang)法。

顶管机

二.顶管机使用注意事项

1.拆装

拆(chai)装顶管机的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)主要是为了停工后的(de)(de)转场、维修保养,并为新的(de)(de)施工任务做好准(zhun)备。顶管机完成管道施工任务后,应把延伸轨道铺设好,用主项液压缸把旋转挖掘系统推出作业面到基坑处停放好。

拆卸前,一定要搭建工作平台和(he)防(fang)护(hu)拦杆,钢壳两侧(ce)圆形坡上(shang)还需安装踏板(ban),以防(fang)工作人(ren)员从上(shang)面滑下(xia)来。

拆(chai)卸时(shi),首先(xian)要把测量(liang)仪器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)接(jie)线和组(zu)装(zhuang)的(de)(de)零件拆(chai)下来(lai),然(ran)后拆(chai)除旋转挖掘(jue)系统的(de)(de)总电缆和容(rong)易损坏的(de)(de)传(chuan)(chuan)感器(qi)(qi)(如报(bao)警和测量(liang)定位传(chuan)(chuan)感器(qi)(qi)等(deng))。拆卸时一定要按电器拆装规范进行。在完,或上述拆卸工作后,应将旋转挖掘系统整体吊出基坑,拉运到检修地点。

顶(ding)管机(ji)其他工(gong)作系(xi)(xi)(xi)统的拆装,应当按照不(bu)同(tong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统如:主顶(ding)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统、土输送系(xi)(xi)(xi)统、注浆系(xi)(xi)(xi)统、电(dian)气系(xi)(xi)(xi)统等的折装要求进行(xing)。

2.更换切削头

旋转(zhuan)挖掘(jue)系统在(zai)每次(ci)拆(chai)卸时(shi);都要更换磨损(sun)严重超(chao)标的(de)切削刀头,并根据将要施工地(di)层(ceng)的(de)土质条件选择(ze)切削刀头的(de)形状、材质,安排切削刀头的(de)布置(zhi)方式。切削刀头分为刀柄和刀尖2部分,刀柄的材质多为经过热处理的中碳钢,刀尖的材质多为硬质合金或工具钢。

在切(qie)(qie)削(xue)刀(dao)盘上除(chu)装设切(qie)(qie)削(xue)刀(dao)头外,还在超(chao)出切(qie)(qie)削(xue)刀(dao)盘直径的(de)圆(yuan)周方向设置了超(chao)挖(wa)刀(dao)、仿形刀(dao)等切(qie)(qie)削(xue)刀(dao)头。采用超挖刀的目的是减少旋转挖据系统外壳的磨损和提高操纵性,即减少顶管机的偏摆和推进阻力。缺点是增加了背衬水泥砂浆的灌注量。

3.切削刀盘的维护修养

每次拆、装旋转挖掘系统时,都(dou)要检(jian)查(cha)、保养、修(xiu)理切(qie)肖刀盘的(de)土砂密封(feng)件(jian),并做好各(ge)部(bu)轴承的(de)润滑工作。为了防止土砂、泥水等侵入切削刀盘的轴承,在切削刀盘旋转轴与座孔之间装有数道士砂密封件及轴承润滑装置。

土砂(sha)密封(feng)件的结构需要依据(ju)覆盖层(ceng)深度(du)、地下水(shui)压力、添加剂压力、工期长短(duan)、管道长度(du)、密封(feng)件安装(zhuang)位(wei)置(zhi)、密封(feng)层(ceng)数(shu)及润滑方式等因素确定。

4.切削刀盘的扭矩检测

在对(dui)旋转挖掘(jue)系统(tong)完成大修或技术(shu)改造后,要(yao)对(dui)切削刀盘扭矩进行检测。切削刀盘的扭矩要根据地质条件以及旋转挖掘系统型式、构造和直径等因素确定。

一般(ban)需要考(kao)虑以(yi)下(xia)几种要素;切削(xue)土壤(rang)、砾石等(deng)的(de)切削(xue)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)力(li)矩;切削(xue)刀盘与土壤(rang)的(de)摩(mo)擦(ca)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)力(li)矩;土砂的(de)搅拌、提升阻(zu)(zu)(zu)力(li)矩;轴承(cheng)摩(mo)擦(ca)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)力(li)矩;密封(feng)摩(mo)擦(ca)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)力(li)矩;减速机的(de)机械摩(mo)擦(ca)、传动等(deng)阻(zu)(zu)(zu)力(li)矩。


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